Under the effects of climate change and overexploitation, heat absorbing building materials are used extensively in the present urban environment, the impervious pavements are increased greatly, and the area of green belt is insufficient, the urban ambient temperature rises year after year, and the extensive application of air conditioning increases the energy consumption, leading to the vicious circle of heat in cities. In recent years, how to build a sustainable environment and a comfortable life is discussed and sought by various countries. The underground cold/geothermal application depends on groundwater temperature stability and flow velocity. A constant groundwater temperature can provide cooling source or heating source for the building walls effectively, and a stable groundwater velocity decides whether the heat source can diffuse in time, so as to keep the heat exchange stable. In this study, two experiment rooms were established in an all-sunlight environment for small pilot tests of the underground water cooling system; a 60-meter deep functional well was built to for a long-term measurement of the temperature of underground water, and it was integrated with the underground water cooling system to find out the best flow (0.1m3/h). As for the collection of the conditional parameters, the conditional setting for the computer flow field analysis was offered so as to make a more accurate simulation of an overall thermal environment. Fluent– CFD adopted in the study could simulate the temperature transmission among the sun, the underground water cooling system as well as the indoor and outdoor space. The results show that the distribution of cooling pipeline influences the heat transfer effect; the system with excessive spacing causes heat transfer, so that the inner wall temperature rises. The analysis also shows that if the cooling pipes are dense enough, the temperature difference between pipes is only 0.5℃, the overall temperature range is 27.5 to 28℃. The simulation analysis shows that the maximum temperature of L0 (temperature between pipelines is 27℃) is lower than the maximum temperature of Section LL (temperature between pipelines is 28℃), meaning the heat will not be transferred from the outer wall to the interior in this state. In terms of the thermal insulation wall with a cooling pipeline, the east and west walls have slight effect on the heat source in the building, the heat is mainly from the rooftop at noon. And the inner-outer wall temperature difference is almost 4℃ after the cooling system is mounted, the inner wall temperature remains stable. According to research results of the all-sunlight environment, this study analyzed the setting of the groundwater thermals barrier system, with the hope of finding out the main conditions for improving the thermal environment and enhancing comfort as well as giving substantial information to design or management institutions. Heat enters the indoor space through thin building shells like walls and windows and would increase the indoor temperature of buildings, reduce comfort and directly influence the energy consumption of air conditioning. According to the analysis of the ground water cooling system, we can know the thermal distribution and transmission and find out the best system. The results will be of great help for the future establishment and management of ground water cooling system and be taken as reference information for planners.
Human teeth enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, is produced at embryo development during amelogenesis. Its lack of regeneration after the teeth eruption and its destruction susceptibility turn it as a good subject of study. Ameloblastin an abundant, phosphorylated, proline/glutamine-rich protein, secreted during enamel formation is a structural matrix component that participates on the maintaining of prismatic structure of the enamel crystals. It also, has been involved in the animal amelogenesis as adhesion protein, expressed at pre-secretory stage that diminishes in the secretory stage. However its function and distribution in human being remains unclear. In order to contribute to the understanding of ameloblastin distribution during amelogenesis, the present study explores its location in the different structures on human fetal tooth by immunohistochemical labeling using a polyclonal antibody against ameloblastin in 5µm human jaws fetuses’ sections. Thus, at pre-secretory stage ameloblastin was detected at the apical membrane and also at basal end of the ameloblast, as well as in the stellate reticulum. At the secretory stage is located at the secretory ameloblast, enamel, and dentin and in the odontoblasts. This ameloblastin location can be related with the enamel crystals organization in both pre-secretory and secretory stages.
Speed control is the most important function of a motor drive in industrial applications. The speed controller then becomes the most concerned issue in the motor drive design. Conventional PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control algorithm has been commonly employed in the speed controller design because of easy control and implementation. However, it cannot solve the problems due to the motor parameters and any load disturbance, not even the sensitivity. In order to obtain the dynamic speed response due to these problems, a PID control method based on a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is proposed in this manuscript. The gain parameters of PID controller are tuned by performing the RBFNN according to the variations of system parameters. Finally, a prototype of RBFNN based motor drive for a brushless dc (BLDC) motor is designed and implemented in this manuscript. A comparison between conventional PID and RBFNN-based PID control is performed. The experimental results show that RBFNN based PID control has better performance than conventional PID control.
The world has seen rapid advances in science and technology in the last two decades, which has enabled dealing with a wide spectrum of human needs effectively. These needs vary from simple day-to-day needs like paying electricity bills, booking train tickets, etc., to complicated needs like sharing and power grids for power generation. These technologies have taken human life into much higher levels of sophistication and ease. However, in the middle of this phenomenon, the rise and growth of a parallel technology is startling that of compromising security, thereby resulting in different effects detrimental to the use of technology. This includes attacks on information, such as thieving of personal information, hacking, and outage of services. The aim of the work leading to this paper is to address the problem of DoS and DDoS detection at the target end using machine learning techniques. With emphasis on hardware implementation, the paper provides the following key contributions. They are (i) the systems approach for DoS and DDoS detection at target using a Naive Bayes classifier for TCP, with a design engineered for real time use and implementation. (ii) Light weight detection algorithm, with a note on processing latency and reaction time.
The effect of fluoride dentifrice (FD) and herbal non-fluoride dentifrice (HNFD) on the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to the surfaces of composite resin (CR) and resin sealant (RS) was evaluated. CR and RS specimens (n=36) (6x2mm), submitted to biofilm formation (1.5×107 CFU/mL) placed in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth containing 1% sucrose. Samples were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 for 24 h or 7 days. After, specimens were removed from the medium and placed in 1mL of the dentifrice solution or sterile saline (Control) for 60 seconds. The remaining biofilm was collected, and the suspensions were serially diluted and plated on BHI agar to enumerate viable bacteria. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). A significant difference in the time × treatment interaction was observed compared to the control (p<0.01), while no effect of the material was observed. A decrease in the number of cells adhered in both groups and evaluation times was observed compared to the control group (p<0.05) in the groups treated with both dentifrices in the 24h. The dentifrices assayed in this study equally affected the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of restorative materials.
Naphthoquinones are important compounds with several biological properties including the antibacterial action. 2-(2,4-dichloroanilino)-1,4-naphthoquinone (3a), 2-(2,4-difluoroanilino)-1,4-naphthoquinone (3b) and 2-(anilino)-1,4-naphthoquinone (3c) compounds were obtained by Michael 1,4-type addition reaction of anilines to 1,4-naphthoquinone ring. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis (UAS), Microwave Assisted Synthesis (MAS) methods were performed as alternative sources of activation. The results showed that UAS promoted the reaction and provide the best yields. The antibacterial effect against the strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella choleraesius was performed. Hemolysis and antioxidant assays were described to complete the biological discussion. The compound 3a was the most active against E. coli with an inhibition of 99.62%. The derivatives showed a doses-responsive effect in the hemolysis assay, and the compound 3a was the least toxic. The percentage of DPPH radical trapping in the antioxidant activity exhibited results under 15%. Therefore, according these results it is possible to obtained 2-(anilino)-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using methodologies more efficient as ultrasound attached to the green chemistry. The synthesis of new naphthoquinone compounds is an alternative to the global problem of bacterial drug resistant to antibiotics.\nKeywords: 2-(anilino)-1,4-naphthoquinone, antibacterial activity, E. coli.
The characterization of probiotic isolates was influenced by some prebiotic additives such as mannan and lignin in Japanese quail birds. Interestingly, the probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) were observed to increase significantly in the groups of birds given lignin and mannan, as compared with the control group. The isolated bacteria were the most susceptible to ciprofloxacin, followed by vancomycin, and finally tetracycline. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria was greater against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. The sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene was done for the identification of the probiotic isolates of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. to identify the species and sub-species: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The dietary supplementation with lignin and mannan for three weeks also caused a significant increase in serum levels of globulin, total protein, and A/G ratio in the birds. In addition, the concentration of T3 showed an insignificant decrease, while the T4 levels showed an insignificant increase, as compared with the control group. A significant increase in the first and second antibody titer against NDV (Newcastle disease virus) was also observed after dietary supplementation of mannan and lignin.
With the prevalence of the Internet and the rapid development of information technology, secure transmissions of texts and images herewith attract a great deal of attention. Though traditional methods of encryption can maintain information security, encryptions can still be cracked after extensive computing, resulting in the decrypted information to be used in cybercrimes. Therefore, it is necessary to apply both time-varying and information-varying encryption/decryption methods to enhance information security.\nIn response to this situation, this paper hides confidential information by replacing the significant bit values generated from a key code and chaos scrambling computation, and then embed this encrypted information into a cover image. This method guarantees the secure transmission and receipt of confidential information. Finally, the user’s code is used to decrypt and extract the hidden information. We find that by embedding every bit of the hidden information into the cover image’s significant bits, the images generated show both high robustness and high adaptive.\nThe significant bit embedding technique provides great concealability, and since the PSNR value of its images are all above 30db, distortions are not easily detected. In the future, this technique can be widely applied in documents concerning bank security, copyright and visas.
. Korean and American ginseng belong to the genus Panax and have a somewhat similar chemical makeup. Both Korean and American ginseng contain ginsenosides, although they contain different types in different amounts. The present study was designed to evaluate the contents of different bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) aqueous extract. Free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, Hydroxyl radical and Superoxide radical scavenging of Korean ginseng recorded as high as 86%, 87%, 82% and 91% compared to American ginseng root extract. The results showed that total phenolic content (3.27±0.12 mg GA/100g DW), total flavonoids (2.06±0.09 mg/g GAE) and ginsenoside content (218.5±8.14 mg/g DW) in Korean ginseng extract were higher compared to American ginseng. The results of this study indicated Korean ginseng root extract had strongest antioxidant activity compared to American ginseng extract.
It is necessary to identify the latest and newest techniques that proposed in order to fulfill the specific requirements and use it in the field of information security. There are some chaos techniques in image encryption and phase modulation encryption technique suggested by some researchers. In the present paper the discrete Fourier transform was used to create phase modulation for a grayscale image. The image to encrypt is placed by one of chaos maps Baker, Arnold and Henon maps, then combined with two random phase modulation based on the discrete Fourier transform. However, to decrypt the encrypted image required to have three keys, one for chaotic map and other two keys for removing phase modulation. The use of the discrete Fourier transforms, phase modulation and chaos in image encryption add much more complexity to the decryption of the image for unauthorized person. Numerical Matlab simulation results have been carried out to validate the three proposals. Furthermore, a second proposal which implements by Arnold cat map and phase modulation achieved good test results in encryption quality metrics and noise immunity which is most optimal.
The estuary of the Rancheria river is a dynamic and complex system that provides social services, goods and ecosystem services to most of the municipalities of La Guajira in Colombia. The objective of this research was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of fecal coliforms (FC) to determine the quality of surface waters for recreational use. The samplings were carried out between september (2014) and march (2015), monthly in five sites; Mouth (DB), the Mirador (EM), Villa Fatima (VF) on El Riíto arm (ER) and Cangrejito (CG), Valley of the Crabs (VC) in the Calancala arm (BC), analyzed the content of fecal coliforms by the technique of dilutions in multiple tubes or most probable number (MPN/100 ml). The content of fecal coliforms (FC) was not presented significant differences between sites, but between the sampling. The highest values were related to the areas with greatest water travel and nearby urban centers. The density of microorganisms evaluated showed temporal differences. The evaluation of the quality of water in the estuary of the Rancheria River presents conditions not suitable for recreational use (Primary and Secondary Contact), which indicate a contamination mainly influenced by anthropic activities in nearby population zones.
In this work biomass wastes, consisting of rapeseed oil cakes (RSOC) and walnut shells (WS), was subjected to pyrolysis process in a fluidized bed reactor, using various pyrolysis carrier gases ( N2, CO2, CH4, CO). The effects of pyrolysis atmosphere on composition and yields were analyzed. Results showed that using CH4 atmosphere was achieved highest liquid yield (59.7%), followed by N2, CO2 and CO2 atmospheres (57.3%, 55.6% and 49.7 %, respectively). Also, CO atmosphere has converted more O2 compounds into water and CO2. Oil analysis showed that all gas atmospheres lead to oil products having more mono-functional phenol groups. The density of oil produced for all gaseous atmospheres was >1.0 kg/dm3 and the pH value > 3.5. By collecting oil fractions obtained under different atmospheres and their mixing resulted an oil with high heating value (HHV) of 25.8MJ/kg , for RSOC, while for WS this was 23.9 MJ/kg, respectively. The main gaseous components in the non – condensable gas fraction are CO2, CO and CH4. This experimental results lead to the idea that the gaseous product resulted could be used as carrier gas in pyrolysis process, by its recycling in reactor, leading to lower costs in application of such a process.
Objective: Evaluation of tooth rehabilitation with chronic periradicular periodontitis, submitted to endodontic retreatment and filled with PBS® CIMMO cement as a single endodontic obturator element. As well as propose protocol change in endodontic obturation using biological cement without incorporation of gutta percha. Method: Case Report: patient had a 3.7 tooth with conventional endodontic treatment and chronic periradicular periodontitis. Clinical examination revealed fistula and mobility. Initial tomography examination (Cone Bean tomography) determined the presence of extensive periradicular lesion. After removal of the intra-radicular nucleus, mechanical disbilling and chemical preparation of the root canal with continuous ultrasonic irrigation protocol (CUI) was performed. 5.5 % sodium hypochlorite and ethylene diamino tetraacetic acid surfactant were used as the auxiliary chemical. All channel filling was performed with PBS® biological cement. After six months, a clinical examination was performed. Absence of fistula and mobility was observed. The tomographic examination of preservation determined a decrease in the periradicular lesion. Conclusion: The protocol advocated in this case report determined reibilation of the tooth 37 and proposes further studies to establish a new biological obturator treatment for teeth affected by chronic periradicular periodontitis.