Performance of the RBF networks (RBFNs) depends on numerous factors. One of the most significant in this respect is the network structure. Designing an effective structure is the task carried-out at the network initialization stage where the number of centroids with their respective locations need to be calculated or induced. It is well known that setting-up values of these parameters is NP-hard. Usual approach to deal with the problem is to decide on the number of hidden units and to apply the k-means algorithm to calculate cluster centroids. Unfortunately, RBFNs designed in such a conventional way may not be accurate, as the number of clusters at the initialization stage must be set up a priori. To overcome the problem we have proposed the similarity-based algorithm for the RBF network initialization. In this paper the approach is extended through proposing an alternative method to initialize RBFNs using the kernel-based fuzzy clustering algorithm. In both cases the number of resulting centroids and their initial locations are provided by the respective algorithm. A comparative study of both approaches to RBFNs initialization is included and their effectiveness is demonstrated on artificial and real datasets.
Background : Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas (TNBC) are breast carcinomas which are negative for Estrogen receptor (ER) Progesterone receptor (PR) and no overexpression of Human Epidermal Growth Factor receptor-2 (HER-2). The five year survival rate for breast carcinomas in general is good but the same is bad for TNBC. TNBC has got worse prognosis compared to hormone positive breast carcinomas. Aim:The aim of present study is to diagnose and classify of breast carcinoma to evaluate the aggressive of TNBC based on ER, PR and Her-2 status of carcinoma breast, to assess the overall prognosis. Materials and Methods: One year study was done at a tertiary care center. Patients of all ages were included. Clinically positive patients were send for Mammography, FNAC and Biopsy and tissue embedding was done. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to diagnose TNBC cases. Results: During this one year period we received 144 cases of breast carcinoma. Out of these 144 cases, 122 cases (84.73%) were positive for triple whereas, 15.27
Despite the past efforts to investigate the plant diversity in Saudi Arabia, there are no extensive studies on the plant species, life forms and chorology of the flora in Al Madinah region. This study was conducted to participate in the assessment of the flora in Al Madinah region that would provide a valuable reference for appropriate conservation and management of area under investigation. The meteorological data and available plants were collected and the taxa were indentified, in addition, their life forms and biogeographic affinities were determined. A total number of 33 plant taxa belonging to 31 genera and 19 families were specified, the ascendancy of plant families were to Leguminosae and Zygophyllaceae. The majority of the recorded species were annual chamaephytes with mono-regional distribution where Saharo-Arabian elements had the highest share to the total flora of the present area. The ration of species per genus is 1.06, that less than of recorded ratio in total area of Saudi Arabia which is 2.6. It is concluded that dry climate tends to increase the percentage of chamaephytes and therophytes that are adapted to the dryness and deficiency of rainfall of the studied region.
Incorporation of Te and Sm were done based on the stoicheometric formula PbTi0.8-xTb0.2SmxO3 ( PTTbS). TG characterization of green powder revealed the completion of solid state reaction at temperature 4500 C. XRD of modified PTTbS powders milled for 10 hours was found most suitable as it gives pure single phase tetragonal structure. Dielectric constant was found as 2632 at curie temperature of 4800 C in the case of 5 wt percent of Sm in PTTbS . Piezoelectric Cooefficient was found as 211 x 10 -12 C/N at 39 Kv/cm of poling field.The results obtained were comparable and even better than so far reported in similar kind of materials.
Mobile Adhoc networks are gaining popularity because they are easily deployable & use limited resources. They are susceptible to various attacks. Flooding & Black hole attack are more prevalent in MANET. Flooding attack send large volume of fake requests to the network & legitimate users are deprived off the basic services. The black hole attacker node intercept the route & reveals that it has shortest route to the destination. This node selectively drops the packets. This paper proposes a ACO based technique to detect both flooding & Black Hole attacks. Further this paper investigate the impact of mobility speed on different detection techniques viz ACO based (hybrid), Flooding Intrusion Detection System (FIDS) & Sequence no. based technique for black hole detection (CUSUM). The excess deposition of pheromone over the nodes during flooding of RREQ packets is used to defend against flooding attacks and lower limit of pheromone left over destination (when it does not receives packets)has been used to counter black hole attack. This scheme had been simulated in Network Simulator, NS2.35, and has shown improvement over existing FIDS (flooding attack defense scheme) and CUSUM (black hole attack defense scheme).
Industrialisation, technological developments and the developments and changes in information technologies have had an effect on community life. As an important means for people to express, realise and develop themselves, the relationship between people and physical education and sport has become a phenomenon that concerns every section of society.\nWith this structure, the scope of the sport concept has spread to a wide area defined by different gender, age and performance groups, illnesses, types and levels of disability, and living and work conditions according to social, psychological and physical expectations.\nThese new dimensions and functions that sport has taken on in communal life have made the training of sports professionals who can meet the needs of areas requiring special expertise essential.\nTo be able to realise an improvement in life quality, integration and rehabilitation of disabled individuals, the existence of an occupational group trained to have the knowledge and equipment for the special sporting conditions and facilities necessary for every disabled group must be provided for. Therefore, the provision of a higher education programme that trains exercise and sport specialists for the disabled by considering the extent of the greatly varied disabled universe has become essential.\nThe Undergraduate Programme at the Institution of Rehabilitation and Sports for the Disabled at the German Sport University, Cologne has been adopted as a contemporary model within the framework of the teacher training concept in Turkey.\nTo solve the problem of qualified staff who can organise mobility, games and sports activities for the disabled according to type and level of disability both in and out of school, the Department of Exercise and Sport Training for the Disabled, which was the first of its kind in Turkey, was established at Malatya İnönü University in the 2011-2012 Academic Year. \nAt the end of the 2016, 2017 and 2018 Academic Years, a total of 120 Exercise and Sport Specialists for the Disabled were graduated.\nThe graduates are employed as Teachers in Special Education Schools and Special Education and Rehabilitation Centres, as Trainers and Instructors in Municipalities, and as Trainers and Life Coaches for the Disabled in Sports Clubs.\nConsequently, this Undergraduate Programme fills an important gap in terms of educating a professional group needed by the nation.
Ozone sometimes referred to as trioxygen, is a compound that has a high oxidative power, as it has the following variables in the literature, with particular emphasis on its therapeutic characteristics, such as potential antimicrobial and immune-stimulatory potentials. Currently, ozone therapy has been very well accepted in the medical field as in several areas of dentistry, with an emphasis on endodontics. Its use as an antiseptic is not a successful root canal treatment due to its micron settlement.
The islets of Martinique are at varying distances from the coastline and are small territories that reveal a high level of ecosystem complexity, hence their scientific interest. They are located in particular eco-climatic conditions, one of the characteristics of which is the duration of the dry period which exceeds five months. Desiccation leads to very specific animal and vegetal adaptations (anatomical, morphological, physiological) and to dynamic processes that are also very unique (vegetal dynamics by patches by plates). From the synecological point of view (community functioning), despite a fund of greatly reduced species, but with diversified and atypical combinatorial modalities, these biosystems refer to ecosystem potentialities that differ from those conventionally used to describe, in particular, the forest types of Martinique (UNESCO Nomenclature). With the help of transects, it has been possible to generate qualitative and quantitative data whose interpretation of the statistical treatments has allowed us to approach the structure, the functioning and the evolution traits of these singular systems (the islets of Martinique).
This paper aims at synthesize titanium dioxide loaded with nano-zero valent iron (nZVI-TiO2) from an inexpensive ilmenite ore. Ilmenite leachant, a solution rich in both titanium and iron ions,has been prepared by leaching ilmenite ore in hydrochloric acid. At 30% HCl, 70 ○C and 5 hours, almost all of iron and titanium in the ilmenite ore were dissolved. Nano titania was then produced by hydrolysis of the ilmenite leachantin boiling water under open atmosphere and nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) was subsequently precipitated on its surface by reduction with sodium borohydride. The synthesized nZVI-TO2was characterized by TEM, UV-Vis absorption, XRD and EDXRF and tested for reduction of nitrate from water. The synthesized material showed a good performance in reduction of nitrate in water compared with nZVI.About 40% of nitrate could be removed using nZVI-TO2 from nearly neutral pH water after 3 hours.
Garcinia hombroniana has been used in Malay traditional medicine to treat various disorders such as abdominal pain and gonorrhea, and little is known about its toxicological properties. This study investigated the acute toxicological effects of the plant’s leaves aqueous extract using the oral acute toxic class (ATC) method. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, T1, T2 and T3 groups. The T1, T2, and T3 rats administered a single oral dose of 300, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of body weight of G. hombroniana leaves aqueous extract, respectively. The animals were observed daily for abnormal clinical signs and death for 14 days. Body weight, relative organ weight, daily feed and water consumption, hematological and biochemical parameters of blood as well as heart, kidney, liver and spleen tissues histology were evaluated. Results have shown significant (p<0.05) decrease in feed and water consumption in T2 and T3 rats, which returned to normal after 72 hours post administration. No significant differences (p≥0.05) in the hematological and serum biochemical parameters in the treated rat groups, compared to the untreated control animals, were observed. An increase in the relative weight of spleen was observed in T3 animals. Congestion of the splenic, hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues was observed in T2 and T3 rats. The oral LD50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg of body weight and, hence, it can be concluded that G. hombroniana aqueous extract shows little toxicity in the laboratory rats and is a good candidate for further investigation of its therapeutic potentials.