The impact of chronic irradiation by decimetric electromagnetic irradiation (DMW) on the PK-activity in the brain structures of the 3-, 6- and 12-month-old albino rats has been studied. The PK-activities in the tissue homogenates, mito-chondria and cytosolic sub-fractions of the hypothalamus, cerebellum, orbital, sensorimotor and limbic cortex of the rats exposed to irradiation daily for 20 min over a period of 10 days under 10 µW/ cm² (low) and 30 µW/ cm² (high) intensities of power current were measured. \nCortical and sub-cortical brain structures differing by oxygen supply, morpho-functional and phylogenetic peculiarities react in different way to DMW.\nIrradiation at an intensity of 30 µW/ cm² produces decrease, but at 10 µW/ cm² - increase of the PK-activity in the homogenates of the brain structures. In contrast, in mitochondria under irradiation at 30 µW/ cm² the enzyme activity is higher. In the cytosole no significant differences in the PK-activity were produced by the different intensities of irradiation, whereas, if these indexes were taken separately, they were noticeably high as compared to the controls (p<0.001).\nSo, one can see that molecular-genetic mechanisms of the nervous cells are affected differently by DMW exposure. At the same time, increase in the PK-activity in the studied brain structures is a process of metabolically adaptation directed towards protecting the structural integrity and functional components of the nervous cells from the harmful effects of irradiation. The results can serve as a basis for correction of many pathological states produced by the exposure to DMW.
Aspiculuris tetraptera is a cosmopolitan parasite which transmitted through ingestion of embryonated eggs in laboratory mice (Mus musculus). We studied the anthelmintic effect of Carica papaya seed extract against A. tetraptera in mice colonies. Twenty- five albino mice (Mus musculus) were used in three groups; group I, control negative, group II; control positive non-treated and group III; treated group. Group I and II 5 mice each, while group III 15 mice. Fifty A. tetraptera eggs were inoculated to SPF mice orally; eggs and adult worms were recovered from intestine after 21st post infection. Carica papaya seed extract was selected as a tested material at a dose 1.2 g/ Kg BW; for three consecutive days at 18th, 19th and 20th days post-infection. Adult worm burden decreased from 40 ± 2.3 to 38± 1.3, 19 ±4.6 and 10 ± 2.4 after 2h, 24 h, and 48h post-treatment respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope was done on normal worms and treated worms after 2h, 24h, and 48h post treatment; treated worms revealed a different degree of shrinkage, contraction, edema and tegumental vacuolization. Shrinkage of alae and disappearance of the vulva in female occurred. Histopathology of cecum was recorded in control negative and positive also treated groups at different times. The parasite was demonstrated in the intestinal lumen with severe leukocytic cells infiltration in submucosa and hyperplasia in goblet cells in control positive group while in treated group after 48h; there was mild leukocytic cells infiltration in submucosa which indicates relief of inflammation.
This work had some interest in the study of cadmium on a very consumed fish on Algiers coast; the Sardine Sardina pilchardus in Algiers bay (Algeria). Analyses were done at different size classes, on gills, muscle and gonads over one-year period, from April 2014 to April 2015 with a sampling during spring, autumn and winter. \nContents comparable in the muscle during sardine’s life cycle for all size classes show that cadmium bioaccumulation does not depend on sardine size (sampled maximum size = 18.5cm). These contents fall by half in September to reach an average = 0.025µg/g in the muscle against 0.11µg/g in gills for the sizes between 14.5 and 16.5 cm. \nHigh contents in gills show high cadmium concentrations in Algiers bay’s seawater, whether at the coast or at sea during the whole sampling year. \nThese results recommend autumn period as being favorable to the consumption of this fish with regard to winter and spring. Since egg laying comes with a massive detoxification of fish particularly after the use of flat reserves, this case further encourages S. pilchardus exploitation from September, post-eggs-laying period then sexual rest one.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of gaze anchoring during aiming movements by analyzing the effect of gaze point either fixed on the initial target or moved to the new target on eye movement patterns and aiming accuracy when the target moved to another locations immediately after movement onset. Methods: They performed a total of 150 aiming movements in 3 task conditions (target fixed, gaze fixed, and gaze moving) toward 5 target locations, 10 trials for each combination of task condition and target location respectively. While subjects performed the task, eye and hand movement patterns were measured from which the accuracy and consistency of aiming and eye movements, and variables representing their relationship were calculated. Results: In the gaze fixed condition, the radial errors in aiming and gaze point increased with increasing distance between the initial and new target location. While the distance from the stylus to gaze point at movement offset was not different between target locations in the target fixed and gaze moving conditions, it became larger as the distance between the initial and new target location increased in the gaze fixed condition. Conclusion: These results suggest that the gaze anchoring during aiming movements may serve as a spatial reference for the hand to movement by specifying the spatial coordinates where the hand is supposed to reach\nkey words : Gaze Anchoring, Aiming Movement, Spatial Reference
Background: Hypertension is risk factor for development of congestive heart failure. The pathogenesis of myocardial and renal cortex changes in hypertension includes structural remodeling and fibrosis. \nAim of study is to evaluate the effects of therapeutic doses of combined XO-Inhibitors and ACE-Inhibitors on expression of VEGF-A in the myocardium and renal cortex in chronic hypertensive albino rats.\nMaterial & Methods: Thirty male albino rats were divided into: Group I: (control group), Group II (Non-treated Hypertensive rats), Group III (Allopurinol-treated Hypertensive rats), Group IV (Captopril-treated Hypertensive rats) and Group V (Allopurinol-Captopril-treated Hypertensive rats). At 4 and 8 weeks, the rats were anesthetized followed by obtaining of heart and left kidney to be stained with Masson trichrome and Anti-Vascular endothelial growth factor-A antibody.\nResults: Group II, one month hypertensive rats showed, myocardium showed disarray with significant increase in interstitial fibrosis. The renal cortex showed evidences indicating glomerulosclerosis. Immunohistochemistry, there was high significant decrease in the number of cells of renal cortex with +ve expression of VEGF-A. Later, they showed marked significant increase in interstitial fibrosis. In Group III, myocardium and renal cortex showed high significant increase in interstitial fibrosis. After two month, there were high significant decrease in the surface area of interstitial fibrosis in myocardium and renal cortex with high significant decrease number of the myocardium with +ve expression of VEGF-A. In Group IV, myocardium showed disarray with marked significant reduction in interstitial fibrosis. The renal cortex showed marked significant reduction in the interstitial fibrosis with significant decrease in the number of cells with +ve expression of VEGF-A. Later, myocardium showed the most high marked significant reduction in interstitial fibrosis with highly significant increase in number of cells with positive expression of VEGF-A. In Group V after two month, both myocardium and renal cortex showed nearly normal architecture with marked significant reduction in interstitial fibrosis.\nConclusions: Long term therapy with the combination between allopurinol and captopril decreases the fibrotic changes associated with hypertension and enhances the process of angiogenesis.\n\nKeywords: Allopurinol – Captopril – Myocardium – Renal Cortex – Masson’s Trichrome – VEGF-A
In computer graphics, line is one of the important primitives. This paper presents the formulation of an algorithm which is more efficient than existing popular algorithms, both DDA (Digital Differentiation Analyzer) algorithm and Bresenham\'s algorithm (which avoids the floating-point operations), for scan conversion of a line. The proposed algorithm uses the techniques of central point division and mirror image in conjunction with Bresenham\'s algorithm. The results demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in execution time when compared with existing algorithms.
Moths constitute the larger division of the order Lepidoptera. The samples were collected from 4 different habitats as Desert area, vegetation, landscapes, crop fields and grassy lawns. Specimens were captured by direct hand picking and with the help of hand nets. They were preserved later by mean of dry preservation. The taxonomic status was determined with the help of available identification keys and online web sites. During September 2015 to June 2016 research resulted in 1 order, 7 families and 12 species of moths in Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. In total count, maximum diversity of Utetheisa pulchella (74 samples) were reported and minimum value was Acherontia Styx (09 samples). It is concluded that these findings seemed to be helpful in ecological management of the ecosystem.