Mostly, optical images have been subjected to the different types of attacks during transmission. In previous optical encryption and compression researches both Chaotic Kicked Rotator Map- Double Random Phase Encoding (CKRMDRPE) and Direction-Adaptive Discrete Wavelet Transform Compression (DADWTC) techniques were simultaneously used for reducing the bandwidth during optical image transmission. However, this approach is mainly concerned with the optical image encryption and compression schemes not related to the digital image encryption. Hence in this paper, a simultaneous encryption and compression scheme is enhanced by using the hybrid optical image and digital information. In this approach, CKRMDRPE-DADWTC technique is further improved by introducing optical image encryption with digital information input and dynamic encryption key based on two Liquid Crystal (LC) light modulators (SLM). Therefore, the computation power for parallel optical processing is reduced by considering the significant amount of data during transmission. However, the efficiency of reconstructing the optical images from encrypted images is not improved. Hence, the proposed CKRMDRPE-DADWTC-LCSLM is further enhanced by applying Compressive Sensing (CS) scheme. Therefore, the reconstruction of encrypted optical images is improved by reducing the holograms data volume. Finally, the experimental results illustrate that the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared with the other techniques.
The effects of aging on the histopathological changes of Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the existence and age related alterations of immunochemical expressions of type I collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) proteins was aimed to be displayed. \nIn this study, 14 Balb/C type white mice (50-80g) were included. Groups were organized as Group I two month old young mice group (n=7) and Group II 18 month old mice group (n=7). Of the paraffin embedded tissues 4-5 µm thick sections were taken and immunohistochemical stainings of hematoxylin-eosin, type-1 collagen and MMP-2 were performed. \nCollagen bundles showed sagittal and oblique localizations in the young mice, which were comprised of compact collagen bundle layers positioned alternately. While collagen bundle fragmentation was observed in the disks of geriatric mice, some disk regions showed ruptures. In the geriatric mice a decrease in blood vessels, structural impairments and dilatation in arterioles and venules were detected. In the TMJ tissues of the young mice type I collagen and MMP-2 expressions were increased, while they were decreased in geriatric mice. In the MMP-2 H-score evaluation young mice showed significant increase compared to the geriatric mice. \nOccurrence of degenerations in the collagen structure of TMJ and decimation in the matrix metalloproteases were observed with age.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate some mineral levels under the stressful conditions in cows with the diseases of Toxic Puerperal Metritis (TPM) and Chronic Endometritis (CE). Seventy cows were used in this study (10 cows with TPM, 20 cows with CE and 40 healthy cows in two different control groups (SB, DB)). Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg levels decreased, and Na levels increased in infected groups. As a marker of inflammation, GA test and rectal temperature measurements were carried out. Significant correlation test results were observed between GA test times, body temperatures and some minerals, such as; positive correlations between GA test time – serum Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg (min r = 0.397, P<0.01), negative correlation between GA test time – serum Na (r = - 0.673, P<0.001); negative correlation between Temperature – serum Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg (max r = - 0.309, P<0.01), positive correlation between Temperature – serum Na (r = 0.479, P<0.001). Consequently, some serum minerals were affected by stress originated from TMP and CE. TMP was more effected than CE. GA test time and body temperature findings were closely related to the serum mineral status (positively or negatively), except Ca and K levels.
The Burgos Basin is an important part of the Mexican economy, which also produces profits abroad, due to the opening of the newly approved Energy Reform. Several indicators of Petróleos Mexicanos (Mexican Petroleum), educational, technological and national and international censuses, give us more clarity on the direction taken by hydrocarbons production in Mexico, being thus, one of the most important sources of employment and national GDP. The development of technologies that are on par with global powers and the importance of education and knowledge about techniques and new forms of extraction, and economic development, are one by one with the overall general development of a nation. The importance of these indicators, denote the increase or decrease that has the national production and gives an effective comparison on the rest of the world. An analysis is made from the information obtained by Petróleos de México and various research organizations.
The Burgos basin is well known as the country\'s most important natural gas reserve; has at least 400 of the 652 wells drilled in Mexico. It is important to have agreements between parastatal, foreign and other kind of companies. This will give the possibility of improvements on the development of populations and will prevent the migration of manpower and intellectual youth. Tamaulipas is one of the only three states of Mexico prepared to produce oil and gas because it has 60 percent of its territory with hydrocarbon deposits and has the first national place in production.\nUnfortunately, important improvements in technology and political reforms are needed to accelerate structural progresses, extraction, processes, quality and economy in order to focus the country within the producing countries and to improve the GDP, innovations and life quality of its citizens.
This study presents extraction and characterization of alginates from four brown seaweed of the Algerian coast. Yields of extracted alginates are 6.02, 4.68, 5.13 and 8.42% for Cystoseira stricta, Dictyota dichotoma, Dictyopteris membranacea and Sargassum vulgare, respectively. Analysis of alginates by infrared spectroscopy shows that the spectra of alginates extracts have a high similarity with commercial alginate. Analysis by XRD allowed the presence of intense peaks at different positions for commercial alginate and for alginates extracts, indicating that all powders have a certain degree of crystallinity. The viscosity measurement shows that alginates extracted from Dictyota dichotoma and Sargassum vulgare is of low viscosity offered commercially belonging to range from 15 to 300 mPa.s.
Purpose: To assess the ameliorative effect exerted by caraway oil against the nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress induced treatment with the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide.\nMethods : A total of 32 rats were divided into 4 groups (n= 8 ) ; G 1 : control , G 2 : treated with caraway oil (400 µl/kg/ day, i.p.) for one week. G 3: received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg / kg, i.p), then left for a week. G 4: Rats received a single dose of cyclophosphamide, then administrated with caraway oil for one week. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical alterations were investigated. Malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase , glutathione peroxidase levels were measured in renal tissue . Serum urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were also determined. \nResults: The results indicated that caraway oil significantly decreased (P< 0.05) all histopathological and biochemical changes induced by cyclophosphamide.\nConclusion: These results showed that caraway oil possesses significant ameliorative effects against nephrotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide that might be mediated by its antioxidant activity.
Background\nArteriovenous fistula is an access of choice for hemodialysis. Repeated punctures weaken the access vein wall. It may lead to skin and vein necrosis and subsequent haemorrhage. The study presents our experience with treatment of hemorrhage from AVFs with cutaneous transition flap.\n\nResults\nThe series of 14 ESRD patients with hemorrhage from the puncture site were evaluated. The urgent surgery was performed and the necrotic tissue was excised. Vein wall was reconstructed and covered with transposed skin flap in 13 cases (92,9%) under local anesthesia. In one case (7,1%) the AVF need to be closed.\n\nDiscussion\nHemorrhage may lead to a loss of functioning arteriovenous fistula. Bleeding and rupture of an access vein in the puncture site may be fatal unless an immediate intervention is provided. The access vein need to be reconstructed and required coverage with a healthy tissue. A flap of healthy skin along with a subcutaneous tissue was transposed to a recipient site in order to fill the skin defect.\n\n\nConclusions\nAlthough rare and uncommon, a hemorrhage from AVF puncture site may lead to fatal consequences. It requires an urgent surgery. Reconstruction of necrotic access vein and coverage with healthy skin ensure a positive outcome and preserve patent AVF for future needling. Cutaneous transposition flap provides a coverage with healthy tissue.
The current study investigated the impact of Internet-based listening tasks on the listening comprehension of Malay ESL students. A total of 60 students took part in the study. They were randomly selected from 110 upper secondary students. They were assigned to two groups (30 experimental and 30 control groups). The study comprised a pre-test and a post-test which was considered to be experimental. At the commencement of the research, a pre-test was administered to both groups in order to evaluate their background knowledge of listening comprehension topics. The experimental group was exposed to the input from the Internet and the control group was provided the input from a tape-recorder. At the last session, the participants were given a post-test to see whether internet-based activities have positive effects on the results of their listening comprehension. To analyze the data, the Analysis of Variance (a one way ANOVA) was employed. The results indicated that Internet-based tasks were more effective in improving students’ comprehension in listening skills and significantly enhanced the listening comprehension of Malay ESL students. The study concludes that the learners who made use of Internet-based listening tasks were more active and successful than the other group.
Generative reproduction capacity of Juniperus sibirica Burgsd. under the natural conditions of the habitats and the anatomical characteristics of seeds and galbuli of the species, related to that process, were investigated. Green three-year old galbuli with morphologically mature seeds, and, mature blue galbuli, were used in the study. The period of seedling formation was shortened by about a year when using green galbuli, but the seedlings were less in number than those from mature blue galbuli. Germination was observed in galbuli planted in natural substrate at the end of the vegetation season. The germination process is favoured when there is a soil cover over them. The presence of few cracks in the seed spermoderm in the 3-year old green galbuli, the smaller thickness and its better permeability, are the most likely reason for the earlier germination of that type of seeds.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of the application of a specific program based on the Gestalt Integration Program “GIP” (Ojea, 2009), applied to a group of students with varying levels of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This program has been developed out of the basic assumptions of the Central Cognitive Coherence Theory and the Perception Theory, and whose general objectives were to facilitate the development of the content of global learning and, consequently, to promote the development of perceptual-cognitive integration and improvements to the indices or values of the autism spectrum quotient that make up a diagnosis. This was empirically supported by an experimental design structured into pre-tests/program/post-tests, applied to 30 participants with ASD. The applied program spanned a 24-month period and its effects have been measured using a multiple comparative analysis. The results support the conclusion that its application has significantly improved scores for those criteria measured by operative variables: 1) visual-motor perception (BG), and 2) autism spectrum quotient (AQ).
Thrity –two species and one species variety belonging to 9 genera were isolated from soybean seeds on dichloran rose Bengal ( 6 genera + 24 species +1variety) and ( 6+18+1) on dichloran glycerol agar media at 28°C. The most common genera isolated on the two types of media were Aspergilus and Penicillium with A. flavus, A. niger and P. chrysogenum and P. duclauxii being the most common species. Two isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger from those isolated in high frequency on the two types of media were toxigenic and produce aflatoxins and ochratoxins, respectively. On the other hand two samples of soybean seeds were tested for the presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxins by fluorometric method and proved positive. In vitro attempts for controlling fungi in soybean seeds were made using cinnamon and cumin oils, and the results obtained revealed significant depressive effect on the total counts and counts of fungal species of both oils at all or most doses used. However, cinnamon oil at all concentrations was more effective than cumin oil.
Nowadays, demand side management (DSM), especially demand response (DR), has been extensively attended by researchers and industry due to its important role in promotion of energy efficiency. DR can affect market clearing price (MCP) through reduction of transmission network congestion and losses. On the other hand, power losses of distribution system can play important role in MCP calculations, because large amount of consumers are not connected directly to transmission buses. In this paper, MCP is calculated using maximization of social welfare considering demand responses and distribution network losses. To do so, demand response bids including distribution losses are incorporated within generators bids in a double auction pool based market which handles efficiently imbalances between supply and demand. The social welfare is defined as difference between consumer’s surplus and supplier’s surplus, i.e. both of supply-side and demand-side players participate in determination of MCP. The proposed model is tested on IEEE reliability test system (IEEE 24-bus RTS) to show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed idea. The simulation results illustrate that DRs have important effect on improvement of market competition through decrease of MCP and increase of social welfare.
For the past few decades, the Middle East has been one area of the world profoundly shaped by war and political instability. On-going conflict and destruction have left the region struggling with innumerable health concerns that have claimed the lives of many. Wars, and the chaos they leave behind, often provide the optimal conditions for the growth and re-emergence of communicable diseases. In this article, we will highlight a few of the re-emerging infectious diseases in three countries of the Middle East that are currently affected by war leading to a migration crisis: Syria, Iraq, and Yemen. We will also describe the impact these infections have had on patients, societies and national healthcare services. The article will also describe the efforts, both local and international, that have been made to address these crises, as well as future endeavors that can be done to contain and control further devastation left by these diseases.