Although most smooth muscle neoplasms in the uterus are benign, uterine leiomyosarcoma (Ut-LMS) is extremely malignant, with high rates of recurrence and metastasis. The development of gynecological tumours has been associated with the secretion of female hormones, whereas that of human Ut-LMS has not. The risk factors for Ut-LMS still remain unclear. A diagnostic biomarker that has the ability to distinguish malignant human Ut-LMS from benign tumour, leiomyoma (LMA) has not yet been established. Therefore, risk factors for human Ut-LMS need to be identified in order to establish a clinical treatment method. Mice with a homozygous deficiency for the proteasome beta subunit, PSMB9/?1i spontaneously develop Ut-LMS, with a disease prevalence of ~37% by 12 months of age. The expression of PSMB9 was defective in human Ut-LMS, but present in human LMA. Therefore, changes in the expression of PSMB9 may be one of the risk factors for human Ut-LMS. PSMB9 may be a potential diagnostic biomarker and targeted molecule for new therapeutic approaches.
The effects of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) and eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) on the production of cytokines by murine splenocytes were investigated using concanavalin A (Con A) as a stimulant. The culture supernatants of splenocytes exposed to DHA-PC and EPA-PC along with Con A were harvested to determine the production of Th 1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) and Th2 [IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-12/IL-23(p40)] cytokines. Cytokines were measured using ELISA. Co-administration of DHA-PC with Con A resulted in significantly higher IFN-γ expression compared to that observed with administration of only Con A (p<0.01), while EPA-PC significantly decreased IL-2 [removed]p<0.05). Treatment with DHA-PC and Con A significantly increased IL-4 [removed]p<0.01). Co-administration of EPA-PC with Con A significantly decreased IL-6 expression compared to that observed with administration of only Con A (p<0.01). These results suggest that DHA-PC is more effective in increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) expression, while EPA-PC inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2 and IL-6) expression on induction of inflammation.
The gill lamellae of Bagrus bayad were certainly longer and seemed thicker than those of Tilapia zilli. Gill filaments and lamellae were mainly covered with squamous pavement cells along with mucous and chloride cells or mitochondria rich cells (MRCs) spread between them. Pavement cells were numerous and smaller than chloride cells. From the ultrastructural point of view, the pavement cells had an almost smooth surface with sparse and irregular microridges. They were joined to each other and to the adjacent chloride cells by well-developed tight intercellular junctions. MRCs of B. bayad were large and presented as multicellular complexes. In contrast, they were presented as relatively small singular cell in T. zilli. Branchial potassium and ammonia contents of T. zilli were higher than those of B. bayad. Branchial Na-K-ATPase activities of B. bayad were distinctly higher than that of T. zilli. However, T. zilli exhibited higher branchial Ca-ATPase, Mg-ATPase and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activities comparing to those of B. bayad. The findings of the present investigation revealed that gills of the selected fish species displayed specific adaptive structural and functional aspects to fulfill their osmo-regulatory demands in according to the nature of their habitats.
Twisted files, utilizing different modes of rotation, were used for shaping 150 artificial canals and worked till separation occurred. Lifespan and cumulative survival at the time were analyzed.\nThe longest lifespan was found in the group with reciprocation and the lowest - in the groups using continuous rotation and Adaptive Motion.\nAll files manifested high survival rates but cumulative survival revealed no significant difference. \nThe results demonstrate that movement kinematics affects lifespan of TFs and should be considered an important factor determining failure resistance of NiTi rotary files. Reciprocal rotation extends lifespan of tested instruments, although differences are not significant.
Objectives. In the treatment of patients with rib fractures(RFs), pain reduction is the most important consideration. Various studies have examined the effectiveness of treatments administered to RF patients, such as lidocaine patches, IV drugs, nerve blockers, and surgery. In this study, we evaluated the difference in the effectiveness in pain reduction between two groups of RF patients: one group that received a rib splint constructed in the ER(ER-splint) and another group that received a Chrisofix® Chest Orthosis(CCO) manufactured rib splint.\nMethods. A pilot study for a prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare subjects using the CCO (Group-A) with those using the ER-splint (Group-B) before and after the intervention. The primary outcome was difference in the level of pain based on the visual analogue scale (VAS) between before and after intervention in each group during forceful and resting respiration.\nResults. A total of 12 subjects were enrolled in this study. The VAS results showed that the intervention was significantly effective in each group (before vs after: Group-A resting: 8.5±1.5 vs 4.0±2.3, p=0.026; Group-A forceful: 10.0±0.25 vs 7.0±1.3, p=0.026; Group-B resting: 9.5±2.5 vs 4.5±3.0, p=0.026; and Group-B forceful: 10.0±0.5 vs 8.0±2.5, p=0.026). No significant difference in effectiveness was observed between Groups A and B (%∆VAS before – %∆VAS after, Group-A vs Group-B: resting: 40±15 vs 45±12.5, p=0.94; forceful: 25±12.5 vs 20±15, p=0.59).\nConclusion. Applying either the CCO or the ER-splint to RF patients effectively reduced pain, and no significant differences in the pain level were observed between these two techniques.
ABSTRACT: The main challenging problem in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is Maximization of the network lifetime. In homogeneous WSNs some methods are there to overcome this problem but in heterogeneous WSNs there are very less amount of researches available to overcome this problem. Due to the better performance of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) in solving network lifetime problem, Recently ACO-based approach is used to maximize the lifetime of Heterogeneous WSNs (HWSNs). On the other hand the run time is minimized using improved ACO and at the same time it is difficult to find the maximum number of unsolvable disjoint connected covers. Based on the performance of Bacteria Foraging Optimization (BFO) in solving combinatorial problems, in this work a BFO-based approach is proposed to maximize the lifetime of HWSNs. Hence the proposed BFO-based approach can maximize the maximum number of Disjoint Connected Covers and K Coverage (BFO-MDCCKC) and convert the coverage problem search space into a graph model. A graph is constructed with each node which is considered as a device in a subset. Each node has some information regarding the reduction of constraint violations such as coverage under DCC and KC, collection and routing constraints. In order to assign two sensor nodes to the same coverage subset, elimination and dispersal operation is performed between them. DCC and KC nodes are found by the bacteria to avoid extra subset construction. The proposed methodology is used to find the maximum number of disjoint connected covers that satisfy coverage area of sensors and network connectivity. Experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed BFO-MDCCKC approach and existing methods.
The current study paid attention to assess the possible protective role of curcumin against sodium arsenite (As) induced toxicity in the livers and kidneys of pregnant mice and their newborns. Four groups, each of which included 20 pregnant mice were treated as follows: The 1st group (control) was orally administrated with corn oil every other day at a dose of (200mg/kg b.w.) from day 8 of gestation till birth. The 2nd group was orally administrated with curcumin dissolved in corn oil at a dose of (200mg/kg b.w.) every other day from day 8 of gestation till birth. The 3rd group was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose of sodium arsenite (12mg/kg b.w.) dissolved in saline solution on day 8 of gestation, after which they were kept till birth. The 4th group was received a single dose of sodium arsenite (12mg/kg b.w.) by intraperitoneal injection. Then they were orally administrated with curcumin at a dose of (200mg/kg b.w.) every other day from day 8 of gestation till birth. The mothers animals from each examined groups were sacrificed after parturition and the newborns were recorded. The present observations revealed that As cause histopathological changes in the livers of mothers and their neonatal showing hydropic degeneration, necrosis, congestion and dilation of blood vessels, hypertrophic in kupffer cell and an increase in the infiltration of lymphocytes compared to the control group. In addition, As decreased maternal Malpighian corpuscles number, lose their spherical shape and caused shrinkage in tufts of glomeruli in renal tissues. While, newborn mice treated with As showed delaying in the development of the renal corpusles in the cortical region, degeneration of proximal and distal tubules in comparison with control ones. In As and curcumin treated group, the mother\'s liver and their neonatal restored the characteristic organization of the hepatocytes, diminished the inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased the hepatic veins dilation and congestion compared with As group. The kidneys of mice mothers and newborns received both curcumin and As showed minor aspects of tubular cell vacuolation and necrosis, structural improvement of the tubular epithelial cells, and diminishing the presence of hemorrhage and the intratubular cast formation, comparing with those from As group. Sodium arsenite treatment caused an increase in the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IL-5 in the sera of pregnant mice.While in both curcumin and sodium arsenite group, the cytokin’s production was decreased in comparasion with sodium arsenite group. It was noticed that in curcumin group, the level of cytokines was lower even than the control groups
Ureteral endometriosis, although rare, is further complicated by the potential to result in renal atrophy and functional loss. Preoperative assessment with a thorough history, physical examination, and imaging can potentially help in the diagnosis. The surgical approach varies, but the goal is to salvage the renal system and decrease disease burden. We report a case with ureteral endometriosis, middle third, left with moderate hydronephrosis status post segmental resection of ureter with ureteroureterostomy, left with remote recurrence about 4 years later and presented as a ureteral polyp lesion. Treatment with ureteroscopy with using Laser ablation and double-J catheterization resulted in an uneventful postoperative course during follow up of 3 months.
This paper discusses the reliability analysis of a complex system which is a combination of two subsystems namely A and B connected in series. The subsystem A consists of a main unit and a cold standby unit. The subsystem B is having two parallel units and working under the (1–out– of – 2: G) policy. Considered system can completely fail due to failure of any of the subsystems. Subsystem A has two states: good and failed, whereas the subsystem B has three states: good, degraded and failed. In this study we have supposed three possibilities at the time of repair. The failure rates are constants but repairs follow two types of distributions (general and Gumbel–Hougaard family Copula) distribution. Some important measures of reliability such as availability, MTTF, sensitivity and profit function are calculated by using the supplementary variable technique and Laplace transform.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer commonly used as a food additive in the modern life style. Although the toxicity of MSG is still controversy, MSG could be a factor that cause hepatotoxocity. The current study was designed to assess the effects of MSG on the liver enzymes markers, lipid profile and antioxidant systems and also spectulated the ameliorating effects of water garden and water cress seeds extracts in the rat liver tissues. Mature male rats (weighing 170-200 g and each group of seven animals) were given MSG (50 mg/kg b.w) and/or garden cress (100 mg/kg b.w.) and/or watercress (100 mg/kg b.w.) seeds suspension daily via gavage for 4 week. In the present study, MSG exposure resulted in an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels, the activities of ALT, AST, ALP and a decrease in the SOD, CAT, GPx activities in liver homogenates, with respect to control. Supplementations of garden cress and/or watercress to MSG treated group induced decrement in the level of MDA, NO, increased SO, CAT, GPx activities. As a results, MSG afforded hepatotoxicity, which is reduced by administration of garden cress and/or watercress to a great amplitude by the entire recovery of the liver function markers and the antioxidant status.
The study was conducted to examine drug abuse and social behaviour of university students in north-west zone, Nigeria. Six research questions and six null hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was descriptive survey. The target population consisted of the entire university students in the Northwest Zone, Nigeria totaling 110,244 students. The multi-stage sampling technique was used and the sample of the study comprised of 1,200 final year students. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire, titled “Drug Abuse and Social Behaviour Questionnaire (DASBQ) constructed by the researchers. The instrument was trial tested and the overall reliability index was 0.91 using Cronbach’s Alpha. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while t-test statistic was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study showed that the types of drugs students abuse include; alcohol, marijuana, kola nut, rubber solution, valium, tobacco, sedatives among others. Drug is often abused by students in federal and state universities. The causes of drug abuse include poverty, ignorance, peer group influence, availability of drug, low price, fun, frustration or anxiety and imitation from parents/guardian among others. The consequences of drug abuse are traffic offences, truancy, cultism, unwanted sexual behaviours, rape, or even murder and robbery. Anti-social displayed by university students are intimidation, truancy, rape, littering the environment, cultism, robbery and murder. Conclusion was made based on these findings.\nKeywords: Drug, Drug Abuse, Social Behaviour, University Students, North-West Zone, Nigeria
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether high intraocular pressure (IOP) affects the GCC thickness.\nPatients and methods of examination: Patients were divided into two groups. The first control group included eight women (from 25 to 65 years) and two men (25 and 59 years).\nThe second group consisted of six women (from 30 to 75 years) and four men (from 30 to 58 years). This was a group of patients who were diagnosed with high intraocular pressure (IOP), either as a first detection of glaucoma or after cataract surgery, or as a manifestation of poorly controlled glaucoma. All patients had their IOP monitored both before and after its compensation.\nFurther, the average thickness of the ganglion cell complex (GCC) (using the SD-OCT RTvue-100) and the visual field (using the fast threshold program of Medmont M 700 device) were measured before and one month after IOP compensation. The first group was also measured after the additional interval of one month. \nResults: The correlation between the value of intraocular pressure and GCC before and after the compensation was evaluated. The resulting correlation coefficient was r = - 0.0297, p = 0.9010 in the control group and r = - 0.03, p = 0.9328 in the second group with high intraocular pressure. Dependence in both groups was negligible and statistically insignificant.
Abstract— In the recent years, the demand of the positioning systems has been increased significantly. For this reason, various studies and projects related to positioning field have arisen. In addition, the appearance of the new technologies (Wireless, Bluetooth, femtocell...etc.) and the development of the operating systems (IOS, Android...etc.) ease the way to build more positioning systems in outdoor and indoor environments. Indoor environments. Outdoor positioning system is represented by Global Navigation System (GPS), which is a used satellite to achieve the positing operation in all type of weathers, anywhere in the earth except the indoor environments such as (Buildings, malls, houses, etc.) due to the needs of this technology to line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver, and the signal strength is weak and cancelled by the buildings structure. So, for indoor environments another technology is needed to achieve good positioning system. In the recent years various indoor positioning systems has emerged using different technologies some of which need extra equipment to be setup and some no need to any extra equipment and use the already existing infrastructure of the environment such the Wi-Fi based indoor positioning system. Wi-Fi based indoors positioning system based on the received signal strength (RSS) has gained more interest and popularity in the recent years specially when the wireless technology has been wide spread technology and embedded in various devices such as (mobile phone, tablet, Pc, and etc.). Some studies and researches have implemented some localization algorithm, which assists in positioning algorithm such K nearest neighbor, Euclidean Distance, Clustering algorithm and etc. Finally, This dissertation is an overview of the existing indoor positioning technologies and techniques that implemented to achieve a positioning process. The main aim of this paper is to find the idealist simulation system to simulate Wi-Fi based indoor positioning system and make multi compressions in case of expanding the test area for multi times and show the role of the clustering algorithm in getting more accurate position estimation with less execution time and clarify the affect of the number of the access points to the positioning process.
The cochlea is the most complex part of the inner ear and it has the role to transform outer acoustic input signal into electrical impulse, which is further transmitted to the brain. Three-dimensional finite element model of the cochlea box model with tapered and rectangular basilar membrane with passive and active model is developed. Excitation of the cochlea can be evoked by air conduction, via the outer ear or by bone conduction, i.e. by vibrations of the temporal bones surrounding the cochlea. \nWe developed with finite element method both air and bone conduction model in order to properly simulate mechanical behavior of the cochlea. A simplified active model with feed-forward and feedbackward outer hair cells’ forces was implemented. \nPassive model showed good matching with Greenwood function with different frequencies. Active model results for basilar membrane velocity were in good agreement with experimental measurement in the literature. \nFuture models can go in the direction of refinement of the finite element model with a more realistic geometry of the cochlea and detailed treatment of the organ of Corti.
Internal abdominal hernia is a rare cause of bowel obstruction in adults. Herein we report a case of 91-year-old man with history of chronic constipation. This patient was admitted to our hospital due to acute abdominal pain, distension and did not eliminate flatus for two days. The KUB and computed tomography showed signs of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed a trans-mesenteric hernia . The involved small bowel was viable and resection was not necessary. The involved small bowel was pulled out of the mesenteric defect. Only the mesenteric defects was repaired.
Home visits have become increasingly widespread in Brazil since the emergence of the Family Program. It is necessary to develop the professional skills nurses need to conduct these visits during their education. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the meaning of home visits to nursing students. The approach used in this study was Grounded Theory. Data collection performed between December 2012 and July 2013 by interviews with students and nurses who graduated during the previous year and are working in the Public Health System in the South of Brazil. The students experience an order-disorder-order-(re)organization process. It results from the inter-weaving of three aspects: confrontation with reality, self-reflection and transcending personal limits. The study reveals that persistence, interactions, dialogue and theoretical discussions during the education program are fundamental to overcome the limits of scientific knowledge and changing personal attitudes towards more solidarity.\nKeywords: nursing, education, nursing students, home visits, community health nursing
In the present study a self-assembling process induced by segregation of ice (ISISA) was used in order to synthesize monoliths (Q-C cryogels) from polysaccharides biodegradable as chitosan (Q) and cellulose (C). The cryogels were synthesized by modifying parameters such as; concentration of the polysaccharides, crosslinker and rate of immersion in liquid nitrogen. They were characterized by kinetics of swelling, Zeta potential, SEM, FTIR-ATR and BET analysis. The cryogenic materials show interconnected microporous structure in the direction of advance of freezing and it depends on the amount of the polysaccharides and ISISA process. The swelling kinetics study on cryogel showed a ratio up to 7839 %; the value of specific area was 4.7 m2g-1. The zeta potential values decrease with increasing pH due to the gradual deprotonation of amino groups present in the Q-C cryogels. The unique characteristics of new cryogels in combination with chemical and mechanical stability suggest the potential applications as separation scaffolds or biological and environmental use.
Background: Previous studies showed that increased monocyte count or activity was associated with more prevalent atrial fibrillation (AF) which attributed to pro-inflammatory. Recently, it has been shown that the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) is a novel inflammatory marker. A decreased LMR is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of LMR on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF).\nMethods: Our study consisted of 30 patients with PAF and 30 controls of healty volunteers. LMR and other clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups.\nResults: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of basic characteristics. LMR was significantly lower in patients with PAF compared with controls (3.56 ± 0.96 vs 4.49 ± 0.91, P = 0.001).\nConclusion: Our results showed that decreased LMR associated with PAF. The measurement of LMR may be used to indicate an increased risk of arrhythmia, like PAF.