Embryo genetics and epigenetics analyzes genes and their associations with environment that has impact on prenatal human development. In prenatal diagnostics informed patient consent is necessary. Doctors knowledge about fetal physiology is mandatory in prenatal counseling. Prenatally detected fetal brain choroid plexus cysts are one of the fetus ultrasonography findings which concerns parents about their child’s health. Present study shows, that there is no data that choroid plexus cysts increases the risk of Down, Edwards syndromes and neural tube defect. Having regard to Recommendation 934 (1982) on genetic engineering of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe as well as the World Medical Association\'s Madrid Statement (1987) on genetic counselling and genetic engineering we convinced that the genetic diagnosis and screening must always be accompanied by appropriate genetic counselling but that such counselling should in no case be of a directive nature.
Gerbera is known as an important plant in flower industry, and is considered as a favorite floricultural crop worldwide, ranked fourth among the top cut flowers. This research was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA) [1, 2, and 3 mgL-1] solely and or in combinations with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) [0.2 and 0.4 mgL-1] on the induction, multiplication and proliferation of shoots in Gerbera gamesonii Bolus cv. Royal Soft Pink from shoot tip explants in a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. For rooting of shoots three concentrations of NAA (0, 0.5 and 1 mg L-1) were examined. The results showed that the induction and proliferation of shoot were affected by the combination of BA and NAA. The highest number of shoots after two sub culture were obtained in MS medium supplemented with 2 mgL-1 BA and 0.2 mgL-1 NAA (10 shoots per explant). Considering root fresh and dry weights and root length in rooted plantlets it was not shown the significant difference between 0.5 and 1 mg L-1 NAA for rooting of shoots. The rooted in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to greenhouse.
This work presents a study of radioactive radiation dose of granite rocks from the northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Radiological effects from 180 samples (18 location ) were estimated. Activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra (from 12 to 253 with average value of 78 ± 39 Bq kg-1), 40K( from 762 to1818 with average value of 1225 ±125 Bq kg-1) and 232Th (range from 10 to 177 with average value of 76 ± 35 Bq kg-1). To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity in the samples, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Gamma Index (Ig) and the absorbed dose rate were calculated. The lowest mean value of (Raeq) and ( Ig ) indices in Jabal matali location are 172 Bq/Kg and 0.66 while the highest mean value in jabel tuwalah locations are 333 Bq/Kg and 1.23, respectively. Also the lowest and highest mean value of absorbed dose are 86 and160 nGy/h in same regions. These values give rise to a mean effective dose (AEDE)outdoor 110 and 200 µSv/y which are just about 11 % and 20 % of the 1.0 mSv/y recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP1990) as the maximum annual dose to members of the public. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental stones. This study provides a baseline map of radioactivity background levels in the Saudi environment and will be used as reference information to assess any changes in the radioactive background level due to geological processes.
In this paper we have proposed an inverse model for nonlinear programming (NLP) problem in which the decision parameters in the objective function of the given NLP problem are adjusted as little as possible so that the given feasible solution becomes the optimal ones. We formulate the inverse nonlinear programming problem INLP as a nonlinear programming problem, which can be solved by many existing methods or by any optimization software. Finally, numerical examples of inverse optimization are provided under the L1,L2 and L∞ norms for the sake of illustration.
The present study explored the relationship between quality of life and coping strategies among 300 female migraine patients (married=150, unmarried=150) with age ranging from 18-55 years. For data collection Urdu translated versions WHOQOL BREF scale (Khan, Akhter, Ayub, & Laghari, 2003) and Brief Cope scale (Hasting et al., 2005) was used. Results indicated significant positive correlation of quality of life with Positive Coping and Problem-Focused Coping and significant negative correlation with Active-Avoidance Coping and Religious/Denial Coping. Quality of life increases with age and educational level of migraine patients. Significant differences of marital status were found on quality of life and coping strategies.
The antioxidant and antimicrobial abilities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (EOs) and ethanol extracts (EEs), obtained from plant sampling in three different Algerian regions, were assed. The chemical compositions analysis of EOs identified a total of eighty components. The main components of two samples were α-pinene (24.7-51%), limonene (4.5-14.3%) and camphor (7.8-13.8%), while the third one was characterized by camphor (32%), camphene (22%) and α-pinene (20.9%) as the main components. The antioxidant ability of EOs and EEs evaluation, by using DPPH radical scavenging test, exhibited the greater efficiency of EEs than BHT (IC50=10.4-20.7 and 28±0.7 mg/L, respectively), while EOs failed to scavenge 50% DPPH radical. This grater antioxidant effectiveness were confirmed by the reductive potential test. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration against several problematic bacteria, filamentous fungi and one yeast. In comparison with EOs, EEs were the most active, especially towards gram-positive bacteria.
The article represents the structure and contents of a novel type of the dictionary named as a “Axiology phraseological dictionary”. Russian, English, German, French idioms are analyzed as a material value and anti-value (axiologemes: wealth and poverty); аxiologemes and morality in proverbs and aphorisms of wealth; аxiologemes and morality in proverbs and aphorisms of poverty.
In this paper the MHD Non-Newtonian fluid flow adjacent to permeable stretching surface with heat and mass transfer is studied. The homotopy analysis method is used to solve the system of partial differential equations which describe this problem. The results are discussed and illustrated graphically for different parameters of this problem.
With an eye on Lorestan’s bronzes, we analyze, compare and follow the shifts in the ancient Iranian’s beliefs (Mehr, Sorūsh, Rate, Vay, Ashi, and Gilgamesh). The aim of this study is, first, to compare and analyze some parts of the connecting chain between Iran’s cultural history as well as the Persian literature prior to Zarathustra to those after his religious reforms based on the symbolisms of Iranian tribes. On the second step the paper in hand, finds and separates the reliable ancient Iranian traditions from the non-Iranian ones. It also tries to introduce the effective cultural loans to the adjacent civilizations. Due to the existence of hundreds of bronze works, only the significant examples have been chosen. Understanding of the historical and the philosophical descriptions of the symbols helps us to form a better understanding of the influential elements which formed these symbols. It is clear that there would be no prejudice in this analysis of these bronzes. Here, with consideration of the historical changes of these tribes, we find out the relations between these bronze woks with the Avestan as well as the Pahlavi literature. \nKey Terms:\nLorestan’s bronzes, the mythological symbols, Sorūsh, Mehr, Gilgamesh
The aging body is unable to maintain homeostasis in cell genesis and function. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine may reverse aging and treat age-related disorders. This perspective article discusses the therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation on neonatal diseases, which may have long-lasting benefits affecting even the aging process. In particular, the article highlights the potential of the earliest transfer of stem cells between a mother and fetus via the umbilical cord during child birth and how this process may modify the clinical practice of umbilical cord clamping. While such umbilical cord clamping is routinely performed in an expeditious manner after birth for stem cell banking, the present article advances the concept that a delay in clamping the umbilical cord may actually allow more stem cells to be delivered from the mother to the fetus. The authors’ overarching hypothesis is that early umbilical cord clamping results in an artificial loss of stem cells at birth and increases the infant’s susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases, while delaying umbilical cord clamping is perhaps the most effective and non-invasive way to transplant stem cells in order to treat these diseases.
Objetive: One major cause of Medial Opening-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy (MOW-HTO) failure is inadvertent Posterior Tibial Slope (PTS) increase. To avoid this complication, posterior placement of the wedge plate is traditionally recommended. However, in the attempt of achieving such positioning, surgeon may encounter some undesired consequences, like medial collateral ligament disruption, instability or neurovascular injury. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between plate position in the sagittal plane and posterior tibial slope, in patients undergoing MOW-HTO.\nMethods: Forty-three patients undergoing MOW-HTO were radiographically evaluated, before and after surgery, to determine posterior tibial slope changes and plate position. \nResults: Mean Posterior Tibial Slope before surgery was 7.6 ± 3.0 degrees. After surgery, it increased to 10.3 ± 4.9 degrees (p = 0.0005) - this was not influenced by position or size of the plate. High values of posterior slope before surgery were correlated with greater increases after surgery.\nConclusion: Plate positioning and wedge size were not related to PTS change, but patients with high preoperative PTS values showed a significantly greater increase in postoperative PTS.
Abstract:\nPoor mobility and low physical activity among people is the result of mechanized life and technological advances in the current century. Accordingly, this study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of modern media-based (multi-media, internet, and mobile phone) intervention on promotion of women’s physical activity. This was an interventional field trial study conducted on 360 women divided into case and control groups. This media-based educational intervention was conducted on the case group electronically, using virtual medium and mobile phone. The results showed insignificant differences between the two groups in terms of mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and physical activity before intervention. However, based on independent t-test, significant differences were found between two groups after intervention in mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and physical activity, and mean scores had increased in the intervention group. Thus, it can be concluded that media-based interventions such as multi-media, internet, and mobile phone can positively affect women’s physical activity.
The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of age, sex, seasonal oscillations and breeding conditions in the activity of some enzymes in blood of dogs in Tirana district. Blood was collected in the cephalic vein of 110 clinically healthy dogs, 1 to 10 years old. \nThe significant age-related differences were found in these enzymes. Changes were most evident during their first year of life, reflecting so growth and maturation of the puppies. Young dogs had higher activity of plasmatic ALP than adults. No significant sex-related differences were found in enzymes activity. The enzymatic activity of ALT and AST exhibited slight fluctuations from one season to another. By statistical processing of results was obtained higher values of ALP in the summer season compared with three other seasons. Breed had light influence on AST and ALP values. \nThese observations suggest that physiologic and environmental variations have to be taken into consideration for a correct interpretation of results of blood tests in dog. \n\nKey words: ALT, AST, ALP, seasons, age, dog.
The purpose of this study is to determine if and how mega sport organizations like the Olympics contribute to the countries’ economies as well as its citizens’ welfare through country image and export. The World Bank relevant economic data set from \n1990-2012 was used for the study. Host of the Olympics after 2000, Australia (2000), \nGreece (2004) and China’s (2008) export and national income figures analyzed by using Multiple Linear Regression Model. The Eviews8 program was used for the Chow Breakpoint Test. In addition, Percentage Trend Analysis was applied to the whole data. Furthermore, unsuccessful main bidders’ economic data also analyzed, for 2000 (China), 2004 (Italy) and 2008 (Canada), to see whether the host country and unsuccessful bidders have had different economic successes for GDP, GDP PC and Export. When Australia, Greece and China’s GDP, GDP PC and Export numbers were taking into account we found out that the Olympics have no positive or negative structural breakpoint effect on these countries’ export, economic development and welfare. Even though there is relationship between country image and export, hosting the Olympics do not rise the country image to a level that Export and GDP and GDP PC are all affected in a positive way for at least after 2000. The view that mega organizations such as the Olympics will bring automatic and positive results every time and therefore permanent contribution to the economy through image rise and export must be reconsidered. Even though such organizations may bring short term gains, everybody has to remember that hosting these organizations accompanies with heavy burdens economically as well as socially. The vivid example is Brazil’s 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic hosting. Upheavals and disturbances have already vanish the effect of country image rise that the mega events would bring.
Abstract:\nIn this study, we present the control of the solidification process of a phase changing pure material described in (1-D) spherical geometry. We used an inverse global descent method where the gradient and the adjoint equation are constructed in continuous variables of time and space. The control variable is the temperature at the fixed boundary of the solid domain. For a desired solidification front, the control was determined using information on the heat flux deduced by heat balance.\nThe numerical resolution was based on finite difference method in a physical domain with a moving grid related to the evolving solidification front with time. The developed numerical model was validated by an exact built solution.\nThe numerical results of the control problem are presented for both the exact and noisy data cases. For the noisy data, a regularization method was applied. In the case of the exact data, a rapid control determination was achieved except for time steps near the end. The random errors effects in bruited data were considerably reduced by regularization.\nKeywords: Phase change, Interface solid/liquid, Inverse problem, Spherical geometric
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease of exocrine glands that involves multiple organ systems but chiefly results in chronic respiratory infections, pancreatic enzyme insufficiency and associated complications in untreated patients . Pulmonary involvement occurs in 90% of patients surviving the neonatal period and end-stage lung disease is the principal cause of death.\nThere is one retrospective chart review of all diagnosed CF patients in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with a total of 317 patients were conﬁrmed to have CF with typical clinical picture and sweat chloride test >60mmol/L. The frequency of CFTR mutations differs between populations, Delta F508 del is by far most common mutation found on 70% or more of CF chromosomes in northern European populations. In KSA, the most common mutations that have been identiﬁed in descending frequency were: 1548delG in 49 alleles (20.5%), DF-508 in 36 (15%), I1234V in 27 (11.5%), 3120+1G→A in 27 (11.5%), 711+1G→A in 24 (10.5%), and H139L in 20 (8.5%), which identiﬁed 77% of our CFTR mutations. ﬁfteen private mutation were identiﬁed in 15 different families. A problem in the treatment of CF patients is that very mild cases can also rapidly deteriorate after viral infections or due to other unrecognized factors, implying that once the diagnosis has been made, the preparedness to treat mild symptoms is important\nIt has been shown that survival and the general condition of patients are better if they are seen once a month for checkup. It is also well recognized that a center should be organized as team, consisting of a doctor, nurse, physiotherapist, dietician, social worker, psychologist, secretary, and technical assistant for sweat tests. The projected life expectancy of individuals with CF has increased signiﬁcantly during the last 20 years and is expected to be >50 years for individuals born in 2000. The development of novel antibiotic drugs and therapeutic regimens has contributed greatly to advances in the treatment of CF patients.\nCurrent research projects in the ﬁeld of antimicrobial treatment of bacterial infections in CF screen small molecule libraries design antisense nucleic acids or investigate antimicrobial peptides for their activity against typical CF pathogens. The role of vitamin D supplementation should be also highlighted with its multiple activities in immune system regulation and modulation of inflammation especially in CF patients. Extensive studies should be conducted to determine Saudi CFTR mutation patterns which could be needed during screening of CF in KSA.
The measurements were taken in nursery of sour cherry trees of ‘Łutówka’ cultivar budded on P.mahaleb seedlings, concerning size and feathering of maiden trees in the years 1993, 2000 – 2003 and in 2013. The results varied between years depending on environmental conditions. The length of laterals increased from the top of trees towards the lower parts with most of differences being significant. There were no such differences depending on the number of feathers on a tree. Correlations between stem diameter and total length of laterals were the closest. Generally, correlations between different types of growth of sour cherry maiden trees were similar to those found on apple maiden trees or “knip-boom” type trees.
Sovereign credit rating downgradings from credit rating agencies are one of the most important causes resulting in the turbulence of European financial markets and the debt crisis of related countries. This paper empirically examines the impulse response of long-run government bond and sovereign credit default swap (CDS) markets of five PIIGS countries to their credit rating downgradings during the period 2009-2012 based on the method of impulse response function and variance analysis of VAR model. Empirical results show that, rating adjustment news have similar effects on both of long-term government bond yields and long-term sovereign credit default swap spreads, that is, credit rating downgradings will result in their enhancing. Of course, the intensity and duration of effects varies for different countries and the differences are mainly reflected on the volatility degree of financial markets related to the effectiveness of national markets.
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a suitable UHPLC-DAD method for rapid quantification of cholesteryl-maleoyl-5-fluorouracil (5-FU conjugate) in standard drug, lipid nanoemulsion and dissolution samples. The identification of 5-FU conjugate was achieved on Hypersil GOLD 50 X 2.1 mm RP C18 column having a 1.9 µm packing as a stationary phase using methanol:water (80:20 % v/v) as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min with DAD detection at 276 nm. The proposed UHPLC-DAD method was found to be precise, accurate, robust, sensitive and specific for quantification of 5-FU conjugate. The utility of the proposed method was verified by assay of 5-FU conjugate in developed lipid nanoemulsion and its quantification in dissolution samples. The amount of 5-FU conjugate in lipid nanoemulsion was found to be 98.12 %. The dissolution of 5-FU conjugate from lipid nanoemulsion was found to be 81.6% after 24 h. Developed UHPLC-DAD method successfully resolved 5-FU conjugate peak in the presence of its degradation products which established stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the developed UHPLC-DAD method can be successfully used for routine analysis of 5-FU conjugate in standard drug, various pharmaceutical formulations and drug release samples.
The notation of generalized topological groups on quotient groups is introduced and some of its important properties are studied. Also the notation of product of generalized topological groups is introduced and important properties of it are studied.
The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is considered the most important food legume for humans globally. However, drought and temperature extremes are the most constraining factors to P. vulgaris production globally. This study was conducted to identify the variation in water use efficiency, and drought tolerance in common beans under cool temperatures, with the aim of targeting beans for a mild winter growing season in southern Australia. Four genotypes of common bean were compared with a control species, narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Mandelup). The results showed that P. vulgaris genotypes, Spearfelt and Arwon, had the highest water use efficiency, total dry matter, root to shoot ratio, reproductive dry matter and relative growth rate during pre-anthesis to early post-anthesis growth and the early post-anthesis to physiological maturity growth. This study demonstrated genetic variation in WUE under moderate growing temperatures, suggesting this crop could be potential alternative legume for rain-fed and mild winter growing in Western Australia. Screening a wider range of common bean genotypes in comparison with cool-season legumes in controlled environment and the field under well-watered and stress-watered condition is recommended.
This study deals with the acute toxicity and the hematological, histopathological and genotoxical effects of permethrin, synthetic pyrethroids, upon Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846). The acute toxicity of 96-h LC50 value was found to be 88.252 (84.604-92.632) µg/L. The changes of the micronucleus in blood erythrocyte and hemotocyte levels of P. parva exposed to a sub-lethal concentration determined from this LC50 value were calculated. The difference between the nucleolus abnormalities of the experimental and the control group was found to be statistically significant (t-test). The hematocrit levels of control rand the experimental groups were found to be 24.426% ±5.362 and 14.672% ±0.916. No pathological symptoms were observed in muscle of P. parva exposed to the sublethal dose. The pathological symptoms were Fusion, Telangiectasis, Epithelial lifting and Hyperemia in gills; Hydropic degeneration, Lipid degeneration and Passive Hyperemia in livers and enlargement of Enlargement of Cavum glomeruli and Bowman space in kidneys and hemorrhage, edema and hyperemia in brain.
Premium rate is the core of deposit insurance system. This paper collects the closing-price data of China’s 16 listed banks in 2012 and estimates their premium rates with expected loss model (ELM) and KMV model. The results roughly present ladder-like distribution. Compared with the rates of joint-stock commercial banks, large commercial banks are generally lower and the majority of urban commercial banks are at the highest level of rates. The rate of the Bank of Communication (BCM) is the lowest and differs greatly from Pingan Bank (PAB) which is the highest in 16 listed banks. From the perspective of long-term development, because single rate cann’t effectively reflect the risk conditions of different banks, differential rates are more suitable for China\'s banks
Constitutional and legal regulation of the military policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is important in ensuring the real national security. Comprehensive review and study the legal regulation of military policy is one of the most pressing challenges of our time.\nDue to the fact that the issues of protection and enforcement of constitutional and legal norms are recognized as inseparable condition for democratic development and strengthen it, institutes of constitutional law are the principal means of its regulation. Constitutional and legal regulation of military policy as a special kind of national security and its legislative regulation covered in the legislation and international treaties, legal literature. After independence finding domestic scientists have started to conduct researches in this direction. Works of the Russian scientists on these questions are known also. In our opinion, it is a consequence of aspiration in any country of the world to establish and support balance between branches of the government and the people power. In addition, the direct application of constitutional provisions is updated constitutional and legal institutions regulating political and legislative enforcement. However, despite many of the studies, this area requires relentless scientific attention, because the questions of constitutional and legal regulation are characterized by their versatility.
This study aimed to determine the effect of educational intervention on lifestyle related knowledge, attitude and behavior of the people living in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. A questionnaire consisting 51 items considering three dimensions: attitude, knowledge and practices towards lifestyle were applied. Two villages (one as intervention and another as control) in rural area of Saman Province were selected and 80 people in each village were asked to fill in the questionnaires. \n Data collected using questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS16 software. Results showed that there were significant increases in knowledge concerning lifestyle such as: nutrition 5.94±1.6, environmental health 5.13±1.8, personal hygiene 3.2±0.5), food hygiene 2.9±0.9, physical activity 2.9±0.68, and tobacco consumption 3.1±0.9 after education (p<0.05). The results also indicated that the effectiveness of educational intervention, consequently increased knowledge and improved attitude of people, in intervention group compared with the control group in terms of lifestyle. In this study, in addition to the mentioned changes in the knowledge and attitude, a significant increase in the mean of lifestyle score was observed in both case and control groups before and after the training; in spite of this increase, no significant changes were observed between the behavior physical activity and tobacco consumption of the two groups in the end.
The aim of this paper is to derive simple and explicit formulae for a bivariate interpolating polynomial, associated with a finite number of data points located on the vertices of a rectangular grid in the plane R2. The analysis through the paper depends basically on fundamental concepts in numerical analysis concerning the well known one dimensional Lagrange interpolation coupled with elementary knowledge in linear algebra.\nTwo alternative formulae are established for the bivariate interpolating polynomial, we apply both formulae to a pair of numerical examples. In the first one, we deal with the bivariate function of in finite product which plays an important role in the theory of basic functions and many other Interesting applications.
Growing concern for the environmental degradation has led to the world\'s interest in renewable energy resources. Since the cost of electricity generated from such resources is expensive and also the power from renewable resources is infirm power, large scale development of renewable resources did not take place and distribution utilities are least interested to purchase power from renewable sources. Concern about climate change and concerted action to reduce green house gas emissions are powerful drivers for renewable energy. Wind is commercially and operationally the most viable renewable energy resource and accordingly, emerging as one of the largest source in terms of the renewable energy sector. In view of growing awareness about green environment, development of renewable energy has been promoted by the Government through fiscal policies issued by Central and State of Government. These policies include tax incentives and obligation for purchase of electricity through renewable energy sources (9). The State Government has also provided different other state specific incentives and benefits through the individual incentive policies issued by the state Government. These incentives attract the investors and come down per unit cost of energy from renewable sources. Drives also moving in the direction of reduction of per MW capital cost of renewable sources through technological development and increase in Plant Utilization Factor with overall improvement in efficiency. Drives are also moving in the direction of developing storage facilities for energy from renewable sources to make them firm and useful form of energy. Enactment of the Electricity Act 2003 (the Act) has provided further support to renewable energy by stipulating purchase of a percentage of the power procurement by distribution utilities from renewable energy sources. The renewable purchase obligation as well as preferential tariff for procurement of such power has been specified by various State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs). Despite all strategic policies in place, purchase of Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) has not been very encouraging and sale of now non-solar REC is at a very low price. SERCs must prevail upon DISCOM’s to meet them RPO obligation. For the development of Non-conventional energy sources, efforts need to be made to reduce the capital cost of such projects. Cost of energy can also be reduced by promoting competition within such projects. At the same time, adequate promotional measures would also have to be taken for development of technologies. While the Electricity Act, 2003, the policies framed under the Act, and also the National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) provide for a roadmap for increasing the share of renewable in the total generation capacity in the country, there are constraints in terms of availability of RE sources evenly across different parts of the country. This inhibits the State Commissions, especially in those states where the potential of RE sources is not that significant, from specifying higher renewable purchase obligation. This paper discusses the latest technological development in the field of wind energy and its storage facilities. This would help to minimize cost of power procurement, and lead to efficient resource utilization across the country and provide incentive for investment in appropriate technologies. The paper highlights salient features, storage facilities, technological development, potential and achievement, advantages and procedure for implementation of wind energy projects in India. This paper also highlighted the implementation and operational or grid related issues in wind power projects.
In this paper, we deal with a new Fibonacci number sequence, and derive an interesting property of this sequence by using the Fermat\'s little theorem.
A reliability equivalence factor is a factor by which a characteristic of components of a system design has to be multiplied in order to reach equality of a characteristic of this design a different design, Sarhan (2002). The reliability equivalence factor for parallel system, consisting of n independent and identical components with EE(θ, λ) distribution, for any θ and λ, where the failure rates of the system’s components are functions about time t, with a life distributions of Exponentiated (Generalized) Exponential distribution are studded. Four different methods are used to improve the given system. (i) Reduction method, (ii) Hot duplication method, (iii) cold duplication method and (iv) cold duplication method with imperfect switch. For these methods we can calculate the reliability function and mean time to failure for the improved system for any parameters, θ, λ of EE(θ, λ). The reliability equivalence factors and α-fractiles are introduced. Numerical examples are presented to interpret how one can utilize the theoretical results obtained in this work. It is obvious that this results are generalized for Sarhan (2005).
On global scale, groundwater has been gaining increasing attention as essential and vital water resource. Its demand has been rising rapidly in the last several decades with the overpopulation and enhanced standards of living. In recent years, a great interest arose towards the natural radioactivity in water. Radon concentrations were measured in thirty groundwater samples from Qassim area, Saudi Arabia by using RAD7 an electronic radon detector connected to a RAD- H2O accessory (Durridge Co., USA). The measured radon concentration ranges from 0.76 Bq/l to 9.15 Bq/l with an average value of 3.56 Bq/l. The measured values of radon concentration are well in the range within the EPA’s maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 11.1 Bq L-1. The total annual effective dose resulting from radon in groundwater from Buraydah area were significantly lower than the UNSCEAR and WHO recommended limit for members of the public of 1 mSv year-1. The measured values for underground water from the study area suggest that the area is safe for farmers and there is no significant threat to the population as per as radon concentration is concerned.
The absorption and side scattering of gamma rays are events that have strong dependence on the grain diameter (d), samples density (p), photon energy (E) and chemical composition of a sample. These parameters were studied for biotite to construct new shielding materials for intense gamma rays. The biotite samples collected from Gebal Fatmah, Saudi Arabia. The obtained results showed a direct proportionality between attenuation coefficients and the percentage of both ferric and ferrous oxides in biotite; on the other hand; an inverse relation was obtained between the previous ratios and side scattering coefficients, as a result, increase in these ratios is followed by an increase in the efficiency of screening nuclear radiation by biotite. The determined values of half-value layer X1/2 are found to increase proportionally with d, but the rate of change of X1/2 with d is dependent on photon energy.
The effects of different activation temperature on the pore size and surface morphology of activated carbon produced by H3PO4 (30%) chemical activation were studied in this paper. Well-developed pore size and highest surface area was observed on activated carbon at 6000C were determined by Scanning Electron Microscope and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) method. The highest BET surface area was 1491 m2g-1 which observed with sample HEAC-2 (highly efficient activated carbon -2). The adsorption Efficacy of activated carbon for paraquat was also investigated and compared it with commercially available activated carbon. The study shows that the amount of paraquat adsorbed was 3.62 mgL-1 for produced activated carbon and 3.42mg L-1 for commercially available activated carbon. The adsorbing capacity of activated carbon (produced and commercially) for paraquat increased when it is suspended in NaCl (0.9%) solution. In presence of NaCl solution, the amount of paraquat adsorbed increased from 3.62mg L-1 to 4.68mg L-1 for produced activated carbon and 3.42 mg L-1 to 4.18mg L-1 for commercially available activated carbon.